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Unhealthy Relationships

It is the job of thinking people not to be on the side of the executioners. The trouble with the Internet is that it's replacing masturbation as a leisure activity.

If the brain were so simple we could understand it, we would be so simple we couldn't. When I told the people of Northern Ireland that I was an atheist, a woman in the audience stood up and said, 'Yes, but is it the God of the Catholics or the God of the Protestants in whom you don't believe?

You can get more with a kind word and a gun than you can with a kind word alone. The longer I live the more I see that I am never wrong about anything, and that all the pains that I have so humbly taken to verify my notions have only wasted my time.

A printer consists of three main parts: the case, the jammed paper tray and the blinking red light. I believe that sex is a beautiful thing between two people.

Between five, it's fantastic. Having the source code is the difference between buying a house and renting an apartment.

If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it? The internet is not something you just dump something on. It's not a truck.

It's a series of tubes! A committee is a group of people who individually can do nothing but together can decide that nothing can be done.

If you want to make an apple pie from scratch, you must first create the universe. In the begining there was nothing and God said 'Let there be light', and there was still nothing but everybody could see it.

If there is no Hell, a good many preachers are obtaining money under false pretences. Patriotism means to stand by the country.

It does not mean to stand by the president or any other public official It's dangerous to underestimate the intelligence of a customer who grew a business that's successful enough to require a large and complex set of software.

Anyone who considers arithmetical methods of producing random digits is, of course, in a state of sin. Analyzing humor is like dissecting a frog.

Few people are interested and the frog dies of it. Before the war is ended, the war party assumes the divine right to denounce and silence all opposition to war as unpatriotic and cowardly.

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REAL BLK MAN - : comments : trackback 0. I'm not into working out. My philosophy: No pain, no pain. Rarely is the question asked: Is our children learning?

I do not fear computers. I fear the lack of them. Humor is by far the most significant activity of the human brain. If you think it's simple, then you have misunderstood the problem.

Only one man ever understood me, and he didn't understand me. Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler. There is a country in Europe where multiple-choice tests are illegal.

Maybe this world is another planet's Hell. Copy from one, it's plagiarism; copy from two, it's research. The only way to get rid of a temptation is to yield to it.

Those are my principles. If you don't like them I have others. It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education. Research is what I'm doing when I don't know what I'm doing.

I'd give my right arm to be ambidextrous. I don't know anything about music. In my line you don't have to. I am not young enough to know everything.

Everything that can be invented has been invented. It is better to be quotable than to be honest. Once you've written TBicycle, you never forget how.

It is better to have a permanent income than to be fascinating. When I die I'm going to leave my body to science fiction.

The backbone of surprise is fusing speed with secrecy. It's wonderful to be here in the great state of Chicago. I have seen the future and it is just like the present, only longer.

No one can earn a million dollars honestly. Gravity cannot be held responsible for people falling in love.

When you hear hoofbeats, think of horses, not zebras. If you can count your money, you don't have a billion dollars. I never miss a chance to have sex or appear on television.

If absolute power corrupts absolutely, where does that leave God? People who think they know everything greatly annoy those of us who do.

Humor is also a way of saying something serious. Don't drive me crazy -- it's within walking distance. The cynics are right nine times out of ten. You're about as useful as a one-legged man at an arse kicking contest.

Opportunities multiply as they are seized. Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance. We all agree that your theory is crazy, but is it crazy enough?

Attention to health is life's greatest hindrance. UNIX is simple. It just takes a genius to understand its simplicity. Learning is what most adults will do for a living in the 21st century.

I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. Ah well, then I suppose I shall have to die beyond my means.

I have not failed. I've just found 10, ways that won't work. The best way to predict the future is to invent it.

My opinions might have changed, but not the fact that I am right. Go on, get out. Last words are for fools who haven't said enough. A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is a statistic.

Whenever I climb I am followed by a dog called 'Ego'. Never test for an error condition you don't know how to handle.

Good teaching is one-fourth preparation and three-fourths theater. A sure cure for seasickness is to sit under a tree. Argue for your limitations, and sure enough they're yours.

Ever stop to think, and forget to start again? I have never let my schooling interfere with my education. Wit makes its own welcome and levels all distinctions.

Talent does what it can; genius does what it must. I have had a perfectly wonderful evening, but this wasn't it. I could not possibly fail to disagree with you less.

A man can't get rich if he takes proper care of his family. I'm not going to get into the ring with Tolstoy.

Smoking is one of the leading causes of statistics. For if he like a madman lived, At least he like a wise one died.

I have often regretted my speech, never my silence. If you believe in telekinesis, raise my hand. A state of war only serves as an excuse for domestic tyranny.

If you gaze long into an abyss, the abyss will gaze back into you. The covers of this book are too far apart. Guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism.

I don't care to belong to a club that accepts people like me as members. Violence is the last refuge of the incompetent. Wise men make proverbs, but fools repeat them.

It is better to be feared than loved, if you cannot be both. Silence is argument carried out by other means. A narcissist is someone better looking than you are.

I must confess, I was born at a very early age. They laughed when I said I'd be a comedian. They aren't laughing now. Minsky's Second Law: Don't just do something.

Stand there. Egotist: a person more interested in himself than in me. You'll notice that Nancy Reagan never drinks water when Ronnie speaks.

He has all the virtues I dislike and none of the vices I admire. I have four children which is not bad considering I'm not a Catholic.

A man can't be too careful in the choice of his enemies. Nine out of ten doctors agree that one out of ten doctors is an idiot. Behind every great fortune there is a crime.

Being on the tightrope is living; everything else is waiting. I'm desperately trying to figure out why kamikaze pilots wore helmets. I'd stop eating chocolate, but I'm no quitter.

It's clearly a budget. It's got a lot of numbers in it. There is no sincerer love than the love of food. Let him who takes the Plunge remember to return it by Tuesday.

The only difference between me and a madman is that I'm not mad. You never really learn to swear until you learn to drive. If there is no God, who pops up the next Kleenex?

My occupation now, I suppose, is jail inmate. I choose a block of marble and chop off whatever I don't need. Total absence of humor renders life impossible.

The difference between pornography and erotica is lighting. The purpose of computing is not numbers but insight.

Roses are FF Violets are FF All my base are belong to you! The only way to combat criminals is by not voting for them. Manuscript: something submitted in haste and returned at leisure.

Don't be so humble - you are not that great. My current job sucks so hard, black holes are going green with envy. Most people would sooner die than think; in fact, they do so.

Men have become the tools of their tools. Huxley, The Art of Seeing. Hughes: Reprinted from Psychology Today Magazine, June, From Imagination and Thinking by Peter McKellar, Basic Books, Inc.

The Natural Way to Draw. Copyright , by Houghton Mifflin Com- pany. Reprinted the publisher. Parnes and H.

Harding Eds. Ego, Hunger, and Aggression. Copyright by Random House, Inc. Picasso as quoted by Simonne Gauthier in Look Magazine, December 10, Reprinted by permission of Cowles Syndicate.

Straus in Tools for Change: A Sourcebook in Problem-Solving. Interaction Associates, Inc. November, Wolpe: Reprinted from Psychology Today, June, Visionary and seer.

A sound thinker is sensible, or possesses common sense; a creative thinker is imaginative or farsighted, a productive dreamer. Common phrases also connect thinking to the visual sense: See what 1mean?

Look at the idea from another viewpoint. Before focusing in, examine the big picture. When do you think? Do you think rarely, or most of the time?

Do you think when you are asleep? Does thinking occur only in your brain, or does it extend out into your nervous system, sense organs, even into your muscles?

The most obvious and at the same time most important observation about thinking is that thinking is extremely difficult to observe.

Clearly, thinking cannot be observed in the same way that a scientist observes external physical phenomena. Only the thinker can know what he is thinking, and not even he can fully know.

Despite its elusiveness, thinking is extremely pervasive. You can experience this incessant mentation for yourself by attempting to stop it.

Close your eyes and try to silence all inner speech and to blenk out all inner imagery. For five minutes, sustain a quiet mind that does not think.

You will likely find this instruction much easier read than done. Thinking not only occupies most of your waking and sleeping time, it also utilizes most of your being.

Psychic mental functions cannot be readily separated from somatic bodily ones. Physiologists have shown that muscle tonus plays a part in mentai functioning see Chapter 6 , neurologists will tell you that the entire nervous system not just the brain is involved in thinking, and you know by experience that the vitality of your thinking is intimately related to the state of your physical health.

As the mind-body dichotomy is false, so is the one that separates thinking from feeling. The character of your thinking is always colored and directed by your emotions and motivations.

Irrational or sane, habit-ridden or brilliantly incisive, logical or illogical, awake or dreaming, we think with our entire being almost all of the time.

Indeed, most thinking that is evenfually productive IS preceded by frustrating, ill-informed, illogical, cyclic, abortive, habit-plagued thinking that produces at the time very little of value.

What conditions foster the kind of thinking that can be called productive or creative? I will put forth three.

The first is challenge: we think at our best when posed with a situation that we deeply desire to change. The second is information: since thinking is essentially information-processing, we cannot expect productive thinking when information is incorrect, inadequate, or tucked away in an unavailable crevice of memory.

Each reader must seek these first two conditions without much aid from this book: challenge is a personal equation, and information each problem.

The productive thinker can be flexible in his thinking in three ways: els. In Chapter 16, for example, I discuss a number of creative insights obtained from dreams.

He can have easy access to subconscious as well as conscious levels of thinking. He can be proficient at a variety of mental operations and able to move freely from one operation to another.

He can utilize several vehicles of thought, and readily transfer his thinking from one vehicle to another. Education rarely encourages flexibility in levels of thinking.

When thinking is taught in the classroom, conscious modes of thinking are stressed and subconscious modes are rarely even mentioned, much less encouraged.

One purpose of this book is to point to this educational oversight, and to suggest ways in which you can become aware of and utilize thinking that occurs below the threshold of your normal waking consciousness.

What is meant by flexibility in levels, operations, and vehicles of thinking? I picture thinking as a stream of which only the surface is visible, orchestral music of which only the melody is audible.

The active nature of thinking can be described in terms of a number of mental operations. An example of a thinking operation is analysis: by analysis, you actively dissect the object of your thinking into parts for example, the a, b, c of an outline.

A distinctly different operation is synthesis: by synthesis, you actively combine two or more unlike ideas into a new entity as in an invention.

Still another operation is induction: by induction, you move from particular observations to a generalized concept Deductive thinking operates in the opposite direction, from the general to the particular.

Flexibility in levels of thinking is demonstrated by thinkers who know that it is sometimes advisable to stop thinking consciously about a problem, to relax, to take a walk, to sleep on it-in short, to allow thinking to proceed unconsciously.

Productive thinkers are also alert to recognize ideas that emerge from unconscious lev- Most thinkers are disposed to use a limited set of favorite thinking operations.

The logical thinker likes to operate his thinking by rules of logic, step-by-step, in a single direction. While acknowledging a genetic influence in this personal bias flexibility in level8 toward certain mental operations, we can also see that education that rewards certain thinking operations, ignores others, and even penalizes a few, is also bias-inducing.

Education in which creative synthesis is ignored or penalized, for example, clearly does not encourage bias toward this important thinking operation.

Mental operations are comparable to special-purpose tools, just as a productive thinker can be compared to a skillful carpenter who easily moves from one tool to another, according to need.

An important purpose of this book is to encourage the reader to enlarge his working repertoire of thinking operations and to learn the value of moving from one operation to another.

A well-known thinking vehicle is language. Visual thinking is of course primarily characterized by the vehicle of visual imagery. As we are disposed by heredity and education to use certain thinking operations, we are also inclined to favor certain thinking vehicles.

Mozart, for example, reported that his musical thinking was represented to him by the vehicle of vivid auditory imagery. Many people, on the other hand, report that inner speech talking to oneself is the primary vehicle of their thinking.

Education that develops skill ;a? First, it vitalizes tK : fiI ory and imaginative abilities thE. Y educdion. Words are clearly not adequate to the thinking of a painter; as you will soon learn, words and numbers are also often inadequate to mathematical, scientific, and other non-artistic modes of thinking.

Third, education in sensory thinking encourages flexibility in thinking levels: the importance of dreaming, for example, becomes more evident to the thinker who attends this form of inner visual imagery.

And finally, thinking by sensory imagery encourages the thinker to utilize thinking operations that are not within the realm of language thinking.

More of this in Chapter 3. They are your experiences. Sample the value of this experiential approach to learning by working on the following puzzle while also irjing to observe your own thinking-at-work.

When will both lift their right feet from the ground simultaneously? Likely not. A man cannot lift himself up by his own bootstraps: neither can he observe that which is doing the observing.

Did you, for example, talk to yourself about the problem subvocally? If so, a vehicle of your thinking was language.

If so, your thinking vehicle was sensory imagery. From this introspective experience, you can also likely infer one or more thinking operations.

For example, as I worked on the previous problem, I saw a mental picture of two sets of footprints seen from above. Although I was not directly aware of the operations that resulted in this image, I can easily infer two of them.

Since these operations happened without my being able to watch them directly, I can also infer that some of my thinking occurred below the level of my conscious awareness.

The answer to the puzzle: Never. An experiential approach is especially relevant to the study of thinking because the student always has the subject of his study, in the form of his own thinking, immediately available.

However, this is not a book abou: thinking; it is primarily a challenge to learn new thinking skills. An experiential approach is nothing less than mandatory here: no skill, whether it be in basketball, basketweaving, or thinking, can be acquired by passive reading.

Skills can be acquired only by active and informed experience. Consequently, I suggest that you treat each of the follow- ing experiences in visual thinking as experimental hypotheses to be tested in the laboratory of your own thinking.

Be both skeptical and rigorous: give each hypothesis a thorough test, incorporate it if it is valid for your own thinking, reject it if it is not.

Then go on to invent and test your own hypotheses. Although I believe that skill in visual thinking is available and vitally important to virtually evelyone, I cannot validate this claim for you.

Only you can. Anything so fundamental to your being, so powerful in its capacity to change your world of ideas and things, cannot come off the printed page and into your productive reali:; without your active effort and participation.

These are to be your unique experiences. No two people ever see, imagine, or draw the same: no two people ever think the same thoughts. I have tried only to provide an initial stimulus.

The rest is up to you. Stekel, W. Quoted by McKellar, P. Basic Books. Vygotsky, L. Thought and language. The M. Osgood, C. Method and Theory in Experimental Psychology.

Oxford University Press. Bruner, Jaqueline J. Good- now, and George A. Austin Wiley. Thinking operations are thoroughly treated by J.

Guilford in The Nature of Human intelligence McGraw-Hill. Vehicles of thinking are discussed in the books by McKellar and Vygotsky listed above and, from the standpoint of general semantics, by S.

Hayakawa in Language in Thought and Action Har- court Brace Jovanovich. The topic of thinking can be approached by many other avenues.

Grey Walter in The Living Brain Norton. All of these books are understandable by the lay reader. The first chapter describes three kinds of visual imagery that are the primary vehicles of visual thinking.

The second chapter shows how visual thinking involves many kinds of active mental operations. The third chapter discusses ways in which visual thinking provides an important and creative complement to modes of thinking such as verbal thinking.

Thinking by Visual Images Images in Action AmbidextrousThinking Learning to Think Visually vituai thinktag is pervash? An astronomer ponders a mysterious cosmic event: a football coach considers a new strategy: a motorist maneuvers his car along an unfamiliar freeway: all are thinking visually.

You are in the midst of a dream; you are planning what to wear today: you are making order out of the disarray on your desk: you are thinking visually.

Although visual thinking can occur primarily in the context of seeing, or only in imagination, or largely with pencil and paper, the expert visual thinker flexibly utilizes all three kinds of imagery.

He finds that seeing, imagining, and drawing are interactive. It directs figures on a chessboard and designs global politics on the geographical map.

Two dexterous movingmen steering a piano along a winding staircase think visually in an intricate sequence of lifting, shifting, and turning.

An inventive housewife transforms an uninviting living room into a room for living by judiciously placing lamps and rearranging couches and chairs.

The overlapping circles can be taken to represent a wide variety of interactions Where seeing and drawing overlap, seeing facilitates drawing, while drawing invigorates seeing.

Where drawing and LFigure 1-l. Where imagining and seeing overlap, imagination directs and filters seeing, while seeing, in turn, provides raw material for imagining.

The three overlapping circles symbolize the idea that visual thinking is experienced to the fullest when seeing, imagining, and drawing merge into active interplay.

The visual thinker utilizes seeing, imagining, and drawing in a fluid and dynamic way, moving from one kind of imagery to another. For example, he sees a problem from several angles and perhaps even chooses to solve it in the direct context of seeing.

Now prepared with a visual understanding of the problem, he imagines alternative solutions. Rather than trust to memory, he draws a few quick sketches, which he can later evaluate and compare.

Cycling between perceptual, inner, and graphic images, he continues until the problem is solved. The walls of the three holes are perpendicular to the flat front face of the block.

Use seeing, imagining, and drawing solve this problem, as follows: to 1. Simulate the pierced block with a cardboard cut-out. Close your eyes and seek a solution in your imagination.

Q Make sketches; seek a graphic solution. Consciously alternate between steps 1, 2, and 3. Discoveries in the direct context of seeing are common in the history of science.

He noticed that the colonies of staphylococci around one particular colony had died. Many bacteriologists would not have thought this particularly remarkable for it has long been known that some bacteria interfere with growth of others.

Fleming, however, saw the possible significance of the observation and followed it up to discover penicillin. Because habits of seeing An answer to this puzzle is illustrated at the end of this chapter.

Fleming, like most creative observers, possessed a habit of mind that permitted him to see things afresh, from new angles.

Also Visual thinking is obviously central to the practice of architecture, design, and the visual arts. Less obvious is the importance of visual thinking to other disciplines, such he was not burdened tradition according to place remote from ence.

In the next few pages I will present a few brief accounts of seeing, imagining, and drawing in the thinking of scientists and technologists.

How quickly can you find the mistakes? Here are three additional constraints: 1. Tape-fasten the base of the structure within a 6-inch-square horizontal area.

Think directly with the materials. Design and build the structure in 30 minutes. Measure length of cantilever from the point on the base nearest to the overhanging and of the cantilever.

Dover Publications, Inc. Reprinted through Figure Another form of thinking in the context of seeing is described by Nobel Laureate James D.

Watson and his colleagues visualized this complex structure by interacting directly with a large three-dimensional model.

The brightly shining metal plates were then immediately used to make a model in which for the first time all the DNA components were present.

In about an hour I had arranged the atoms in positions which satisfied both the x-ray data and the laws of stereochemistry.

The resulting helix was right-handed with the two chains running in opposite directions. Ideally, the next problem an experience in thinking in the direct context of seeing is given in the spirit of a competition.

In rare thinkers, this inner imagery is extremely clear. These pictures were more vivid than any blueprint. The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are certain signs and more or less clear images which can be voluntarily reproduced and combined.

The above mentioned elements are, in my case, of visual and som, of muscular type. My mental eye. But look! What was that? One of the snakes had seized hold of its own tail, and the form whirled mockingly before my eyes.

As if by a flash of lightning I awoke. Those of you who identify high intellectual endeavor exclusively with verbal and mathematical symbols should consider the introspections of Tesla, Einstein, and Kekul6 with special care.

Has something been overlooked in your education? The following problem, for example, is best solved by inner imagery.

Has your education prepared you for this kind of problem-solving? Now take two additional vertical cuts. Finally, take two parallel and horizontal cuts through the cube, dividing it into 27 cubes.

Now, how many of these small cubes are painted on three sides? On two sides? On one side? How many cubes are unpainted? Most visual thinkers clarify and develop their thinking with sketches.

It is painted. Now imagine that you take two parallel and vertical cuts through the cube, dividing it into equal thirds.

Further, drawing provides a function that memory cannot: the most brilliant imager cannot compare a number of images, side by side in memory, as one can compare a wall of tacked-up idea-sketches, Two idea-sketches from the notebook of John Houbolt, the engineer who conceived the Lunar Landing Module, are reproduced in Figure Idea-sketching, like thinking itself, moves fluidly from the abstract to the concrete.

Graphic ideation precedes graphic communication; graphic ideation helps to develop visual ideas worth communicating. Because thinking flows quickly, graphic ideation is usually freehand, impressionistic, and rapid.

Because communication to others demands clarity, graphic communication is necessarily more formal, explicit, and time-consuming.

Education that stresses graphic communication and fails to consider graphic ideation can til Iwittingly hamper visual thinking.

In the next chapter, I will briefly review some of these test forms: they will help to shed light on the operations of visual thinking. Problem l The fourth card is the correct one.

Can you generate some of the others? Arnheim, R. Feldman, E. Art as image and Idea. Beveridge, W. Random House Vintage Books. Kaufman, G. The Book of Modern Puzzles.

Watson, J. The Double Helix. McKay Tartan Books. Einstein, A. Quoted by Hadamard, J. Princeton University Press. Kekule, F.

Quoted by Koestler, A. Hill, E. The Language of Drawing. PrenticeHall Spectrum Books. If you want to delve deeper into the theory of visual thinking, or if you want to be convinced that visual thinking is the most important kind of thinking, I highly recommend this book.

It is now available ih paperback. Psychologists who study and test mental ability have discovered that visual thinking involves a number of visual-spatial operations.

We know some seven or eight primary factors that are quite distinct and which are all related to visual thinking.

Operations that occur unconsciously, such as the fantastic symbolic transformations that occur in dreams, are not represented, nor are the subtler operations of visual synthesis.

These and other mental operations will be treated in subsequent chapters. In this chapter, you will not be tested for visualthinking ability, nor will you be treated to a discussion of psychological testing.

Guilford and others have shown that many other discrete visual-thinking operations can be identified and tested. In fact, perception is an active, pattern-seeking process that is closely allied to the act of thinking.

The active and constructive nature of visual perception is well-illustrated by psychological tests that require the operation of closure.

As you visually seek both patterns, notice that your perception is indeed active. Z-1 j rnling in2 Look at the picture on the left. It is a picture of a violin.

What is the figure in the picture on the right? In the next illustration, perception actively seeks pattern in another way. You are to decide whether or not the figure is concealed in any of the four drawings to the right.

Check the duplicate figure. In each of the rows below, two figures are exactly alike. Check these figures. Why does the test emphasize speed? Did you notice that there is a.

The long way involves detail-by-detail comparison and, perhaps, even a bit of verbal talking to oneself.

The quick way involves seeing the desired pattern as a whole and matching it without hesitation. The desired operation is the quick way-thus the emphasis on speed in the test.

Now try another kind of visual operation involving pattern perception. This operation is extremely common and is fundamental to all thinking.

The following more difficult operation, essential to the invention of categories, is relatively routine for humans but a tour de force for a wellprogrammed computer.

You may rate yourself effective in visual categorization if, in Figure , you checked b and e, b and f, b and e.

We literally invent our world by this visual-spatial operation. On a rudimentary level, we discover all of the objects in our environment by recognizing common features; ask a child how he distinguishes cats from dogs.

On a more rigorous level, visual categorizing is at the core of much scientific discovery; a skilled eye peering into a microscope operates much as did yours in the previous example.

The active nature of pattern-seeking is experientially dramatized by tests that involve drawing. As you work the following problem, realize that your pencil, as it constructs the required image, reflects the constructive activity of eye and mind.

So far, you have been actively filling in, finding, matching, categorizing, completing, and rememtiering fixed images.

In the next two test problems, experience the operation of mentally rotating images in space. First, experience rotating a flat im?

In the remaining squares, draw the inverse of the drawings on the right. One can never be sure that a low test score is the result of poor memory; it could as well be the result of inaccurate perception.

Indeed, vigorous perception and faithful re-membering are closely allied. The more actively you perceive the following designs, the more likely you will be able to reproduce them from memory.

Close the book; on separate paper, reproduce them in any order. If you checked the second pair of dice, you correctly performed the operation of rotation.

Now mentally rotate the image of a threedimensional object in space. This is an alternative operation: either the object is mentally rotated, or the viewpoint is rotated in relation to the object.

Orthographic imagination also includes cutting through a solid object and viewing the resulting cross-section see Chapter One of the drawings in the righthand column shows the same object in a different position.

Circle the number of that drawing. If you were able to see that the correct drawing in Figure is c, can you also orient yourself to the following situation?

If a boy passes by my house walking toward the rising sun, with my house at his right, which direction does my house face?

Now try unfolding. In Problem is folded. Which of the four objects on the right is the result? P 1 Figure You correctly performed the required operation if you visualized the loops of string marked b, c, and e as knots.

Now move several objects in relation to each other. Motion in visual-spatial operations is likely effected by kinesthetic muscle imagery.

Although the following problem is mechanical in nature, imagery in three-dimensional motion is important to visual thinking in many fields.

The processes are nearly inscrutable. If so, you were experiencing the importance of kinesthetic imagery to active thinking operations.

Logical reasoning, on the concrete level of the previous examples, works much the same way in visual thinking as it does in verbal and mathematical thinking.

Deductive reasoning, by which the thinker goes from an abstract to a concrete idea, also occurs in all kinds of thinking. But visual deduction, especially of the more profound sort, is difficult to illustrate or describe.

The painter, for example, who realizes an abstract idea in a particular composition thinks deductively. Which of the designs on the right completes the analogy?

Can you induce the remaining answer figures? In the next problem, you are asked to induce the abstract principle that relates four sequential images to a fifth image.

Or better yet, try chess. This test, although it provides more latitude, is nevertheless rudimentary. To suggest the complex nature of visual synthesis, we must probe deeper.

All of the visual-spatial operations discussed in this chapter, and some additional operations to be introduced later, are involved in the act of creation.

But such operations as occur in dreams are closer to the heart of creative visual thinking. Thurstone, L. Harding , Scribners.

Thurstons, L. Closure Speed Gestalt The principle that relates the three designs is sequence: 1 the entire figure rotates 45 degrees; 2 the two sets of symbols move as sets, 90 degrees clockwise and 90 degrees counterclockwise; and 3 inner and outer sets of symbols exchange positions.

The related design is therefore c. In one well-known test, shape fragments are put Completion. Industrial Relations Center. Closure Nexibilify Concealed Figures.

Perceptual Speed. Education-Industry Service. Bernard, W. Test Yourself. Smith, I. Spatial Ability. Bennett, G. Differential Aptitude Tests: Form L.

The Psychological Corporation. Bain et al. Moray House Space Test 1. University of Edinburgh. Eysenck, H. Know Your Own I. Penguin Pelican Books. Sentiment, intuition.

The symbolic left hand is open to fresh impressions, hunches, and subconscious levels of thinking; the symbolic right hand holds the tools necessary to develop, express, and realize ideas, to bring them into the world of action.

Although the symbolic left and right hands should not be confused with actual leftor right-handedness, the symbolism nevertheless bears some relation to neurological fact.

The right hemisphere of the brain which controls the left side of the body is a neurological center for such symbolically left-handed processes as sensing and imagining.

And the left hemisphere which crosses over to control the right side is a center for such symbolically right-handed processes as verbal reasoning and mathematical description.

Snow separated scientists from literary and artistic humanists in Two CuMures and the Scientific Revolufion. One can certainly identify individuals who are symbolically left- or right-handed.

But can entire professions be classified in this way? The individual who is able to bridge the inner messages of his left hand over to his form-giving, outward-oriented right hand, is, to carry the left-right symbolism one step further, ambidextrous in his thinking.

Truly creative people in every field are ambidextrous-that is, capable of receiving with the left and transferring to and expressing with the right.

In Chapter 1, sci- entists Fleming, Watson, Kekule, and Einstein and engineers Tesla and Houbolt are revealed as eminently ambidextrous.

In the following experience, exercise your ability to use your symbolic right and left hands, and to body sensations. Close your eyes and IOCata various parts of your body: your right big toe, the end of your nose.

Be aware of your breathing, without trying to control it controlling iS right-handed. And so on. Finally, attend your emotions.

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